To degree or not to degree, that is the question

The Bureau of Labor Statistics released their most recent Occupational Outlook Handbook on their website last January.  I have downloaded the data and parsed through it.

There are 579 different occupations listed in the OOH.  The occupations are listed alphabetically and include information on 2012 median pay, the entry-level education required to enter the occupation, and the projected level of new jobs for 2012 through 2022.  I have summarized the important information below.

Educational Requirements

For my purposes, I ignored the data on projected occupational information for those who will earn a degree or post-secondary award above the bachelor’s degree level.  Occupations that require a Master’s degree, or  a PhD or professional degree (i.e., law or medical degrees) are not included.  As a result, only 452 out of the 579 occupations listed in the OOH require a bachelor’s degree or less.

The graph of the educational requirements for projected future job openings looks like this:

Jobs by Education Level

The numbers break down this way:

Entry Level Education Total % of Total
Less than high school 63 13.94%
High School Diploma or equivalent 206 45.58%
Some college, no degree 5 1.11%
Associate’s degree 42 9.29%
Bachelor’s degree 136 30.09%
Grand Total 452 100.00%

As you can see, 45.58% of all jobs in the next ten years will require no more than a high school diploma or GED.  Only 30.09% of those jobs will require a bachelor’s degree, while 69.91 % will not require a bachelor’s degree.  What this means is that almost half of the projected future workforce will be overqualified for a job if they obtain a bachelor’s degree.  And in today’s labor market, being overqualified is worse than being underqualified.

Level of Education and Income Level

Now that we have seen that a majority of jobs in the future will not require a bachelor’s degree, the next step is to ask how much money you will make in those jobs.  After all, it is often reported that college graduates will make more money (up to $1 million more) than people who don’t get a college degree.

And looking at the OOH projections, that appears to be true.  People who earn a bachelor’s degree are projected to make more in salary than people who don’t.  Let’s take a closer look at this.

The OOH divides the income levels for occupations into six categories: wage not available; less than $25,000 per year; $25,000 to $34,999 per year; $35,000to $54,999 per year; $55,000 to $74,999 per year; and $75,000 or more per year.  Here is the projection of future occupations by degree and income level:

Degree and Income Level

With less than a bachelor’s degree

There are 3 occupations where the wage is not available.  Those three jobs are: actors (some college, no degree); Dancers (high school diploma or equivalent); and musicians and singers (high school diploma or equivalent).  The ‘starving artist’ trope exists for a reason.  I don’t care what you see on The Voice, American Idol, or So You Think You Can Dance?   Under no circumstances should you plan on earning a living as an actor,  musician/singer, or dancer.

There are also three occupations it is possible to make $75,000 or more without a bachelor’s degree, according to the OOH: air traffic controllers (associate’s degree), radiation therapists (associates degree), and elevator installers and repairers (high school degree or equivalent).  Unfortunately, job growth is projected to be low for these professions.

With a bachelor’s degree

For occupations that require a bachelor’s degree, there is one occupation where workers earn less than $25,000 per year: recreation workers.  And the two groups projected to earn between $25,000 and $34,999 with their bachelor’s degree are coaches and scouts, and radio and television announcers.  So there’s little point in getting a bachelor’s degree for those jobs.

If you are planning on making $75,000 or more with your bachelor’s degree, there are 50 occupations in this income category.  That’s the good news.  The bad news is that these occupations are dominated by the STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics).

Groups making 75k or more

Good news for those who don’t get a bachelor’s degree

The whole point of this post is to convince people that they can earn a decent living without wasting their time and money on a bachelor’s degree.  And the good news is that 49.56%  of the occupations for those without a bachelor’s degree will pay between $25,000 and $54,999 per year.

Income Level No Bachelors Degree Bachelors Degree
Wage Not Available 3 0
< $25,000 55 1
$25,000 to $34,999 95 2
$35,000 to $54,999 129 34
$55,000 to $74,999 30 49
$75,000 or more 3 50

And you shouldn’t be too envious of those who get a bachelor’s degree. The average college graduate has incurred $29,400 in student loan debt.  And they are also struggling to find a job:

Seven in 10 seniors graduated with student loan debt, and a fifth of that debt was owed to private lenders, which often charge high interest rates.

To make matters worse, the job market still hasn’t recovered, leaving many graduates with little or no income.


Still, the employment prospects of college grads are a lot better than those without college education. High school grads without college degrees faced an unemployment rate of 17.9% in 2012, compared to 7.7% for young college graduates.  (emphasis added)

Even college students who do find a job are finding out that they wasted their time getting that degree:

It’s getting tougher for recent grads to land a job worthy of their college degree.

Though the demand for college graduates rebounded after the Great Recession, it has leveled off over the past 18 months, according to new Federal Reserve Bank of New York research.

This is not to say that recent grads aren’t getting jobs. In fact, their unemployment rate has fallen to just over 5%, down from a peak of slightly more than 7% in 2011. And it’s less than half the rate of young workers who don’t have a bachelor’s degree.

But many recent grads are underemployed, working in jobs that don’t require degrees. The underemployment rate has been on the rise since 2003 and now stands at 46%. (emphasis added)

“It’s not a great time for college grads,” said Jaison Abel, an officer with the NY Fed’s research and statistics group. “This pattern we’ve seen of increasing underemployment could continue for some time to come.”

I wonder how those underemployed college graduates are making payments on their student loans?

Reality bites

9 of the top 10 occupations in the U.S. today pay less than $35,000 per year:

  1. Retail salespersons, 4.48 million workers earning  $25,370
  2. Cashiers  3.34 million workers earning $20,420
  3. Food prep and serving staff, 3.02 million workers earning $18,880
  4. General office clerk, 2.83 million working earning $29,990
  5. Registered nurses, 2.66 million workers earning $68,910
  6. Waiters and waitresses, 2.40 million workers earning $20,880
  7. Customer service representatives, 2.39 million workers earning $33,370
  8. Laborers, and freight and material movers, 2.28 million workers earning $26,690
  9. Secretaries and admins (not legal or medical),  2.16 million workers earning $34,000
  10. Janitors and cleaners (not maids),  2.10 million workers earning, $25,140

Guess what?  You don’t need a bachelor’s degree to get any of those jobs.  And the job market may not be getting any better for those who have earned their bachelor’s degree:

Dear Class of 2014: We regret to inform you that the nation’s job market continues to force college graduates to take jobs they’re overqualified for, jobs outside their major, and generally delay their career to the detriment of at least a decade’s worth of unearned wages. Good luck on your job search.

A job rejection letter to this year’s graduates, who are supposed to be starting their first truly independent adult years, might as well go something like that.

A jobs report for April gave grads a puzzling picture. Employers added the most jobs in more than two years, 288,000. Unemployment dropped from 6.7% to 6.3%, the first time it was that low since September 2008. Still, the portion of Americans 25-34 who were working in April fell to a five-month low of 75.5%, down from 75.9% in March.

“The entire drop (in unemployment) was due to people dropping out of the labor force, in particular young people,” says Heidi Shierholz, a labor market economist who writes an annual report on the state of employment for young adults for the Economic Policy Institute.

There is another reason to avoid getting a 4-year degree: there are already more college graduates than there are jobs that require a college degree.  Here are the facts:

#1 There Are Not Enough Jobs for College Graduates

A recent study by non-profit Center for College Affordability and Productivity says there are far less jobs available that require college degrees than there are college graduates seeking employment. Labor Department data used by the study showed 28.6 million jobs available that required a college degree and 41.7 million degreed professionals available to fill them. That means that unless something changes, some 13 million workers are not getting their money’s worth out of their education.

#2 Many College Graduates Are Working in Jobs That Require a High School Diploma (or less)

Not only are 13 million degreed workers not going to land in a job that makes use of their bachelor’s or master’s degree, many will work in jobs where a high school diploma is likely optional. 15% of taxi drivers have college degrees, 25% of retail clerks have graduated college and 5% of janitors are college alumni. Study author Richard Vedder says, “There are going to be an awful lot of disappointed people because a lot of them are going to end up as janitors.” Wow!

#3 You May Be Able to Make As Much Or More As a Skilled Laborer

There are over 500,000 manufacturing jobs across the US sitting open and hundreds of thousands more skilled labor positions. These require on-the-job training rather than any formal education and experts predict this job segment will be booming over the next decade. The age of the average skilled manufacturing worker is 56, so within the next decade, this generation will phase into retirement, leaving a huge skills gap. Skilled jobs like these pay an average wage of around $25 per hour which equates to about $50,000 per year. Average wages for someone with a bachelor’s working in their field are just $59,000. And manufacturing jobs often come with union protection, great benefits and no student loan debt!

#4 You May Be Able to Make as Much or More With an Associate’s Degree

While the cost of four year colleges and universities has been on the rise, community college and trade school tuition have remained low cost alternatives. The highest earning careers you can launch with an associate’s degree are in healthcare, occupational trades and technology. A good indicator of the earning potential of a career path is how much science and math are involved in the program. Nurses, respiratory and radiation therapists, engineering and aviation jobs are among the high earning jobs you can get with just two years of school.

#5 The More Debt You Graduate With, The Less Your Effective Earnings Are

Bachelor’s degree graduates average $20,000 in student loan debt. At 6.8% interest, paying back over 10 years, the monthly payments would be $230. That’s $2,760 per year less in your pocket. When you are job hunting fresh out of university, the impact of your student loan debt is important to bear in mind. To optimize your debt and ensure you are paying in the most effective manner, consider consulting a student loan expert. Trade school and community college graduates emerge with drastically less debt, often just a few thousand dollars. Your wages will be effectively higher if you owe less debt!

Save your time and effort to use on something you really want to do.  And avoid the student loan scam at the same time.  You’ll be better off down the road.


Yet another reason to avoid college and student loans.

Student loans can ruin your relationship with your parents:

Like a lot of high school seniors, Andrew Josuweit wasn’t entirely sure where he wanted to go to college, but a mailbox stuffed full of college brochures introduced him to possibilities he’d never considered before. He had been offered some scholarships at local colleges, but there was a private business college in Boston that interested him more. He loved the campus and felt like it was a good fit.

“It was an emotional decision,” he concedes now. The annual cost was about $40,000.

So Josuweit did what thousands of other college students do: He took out student loans. The difficulty was he couldn’t take out the amount he needed from federal loans. He needed private loans as well, and he couldn’t get them without co-signers. His parents didn’t like the idea, and they had already let him know that even though they agreed to cosign, he would be responsible for funding his own college, and he accepted the responsibility.

Ugh.  So much stupid in just 3 paragraphs.

  1. He didn’t want to go to college.  This is the first mistake, and one that many college students make: going to college because they don’t know what else to to.   Andrew would have been better off getting a part-time McJob and working until he figured out what he really wanted to do.  As you will see later, he had another option.
  2. He turned down cheaper options and moved to a large (i.e. expensive) city because of how it made him feel.  Jeebus, what a woman.  This is the epitome of stupid.  Where you go to school doesn’t matter.  Accounting is accounting, economics is economics, and psychology is psychology.  All professors teach the same material, no matter which school you go to.  And it doesn’t matter if you hate your school.  You aren’t there to love it now, you are there to improve your future earning potential.  Save the move to the big city until you get the high-paying job that will allow you to fund your living expenses in that city.
  3. So Josuweit did what thousands of other college students do: He took out student loans. The difficulty was he couldn’t take out the amount he needed from federal loans. He needed private loans as well, and he couldn’t get them without co-signers. His parents didn’t like the idea, and they had already let him know that even though they agreed to cosign, he would be responsible for funding his own college, and he accepted the responsibility.  There is so much parental fail in this article, I can’t stand it.  He couldn’t afford his dream college, so he took out student loans.  The article doesn’t mention it, but I am guessing he took out about $60,000 in loans each year.  And his parents didn’t like the idea but co-signed anyway.  Jeebus.  The apple didn’t fall far from the tree, did it?
  4. He had decided he didn’t want a corporate job, and he took a job working for a nonprofit in Africa. He couldn’t pay his student loans, and his parents began to get late notices. Worse, because they had co-signed the loans, their credit scores took a significant hit. His parents have a small business, and good credit was important.  Wow.  Just wow.  The kid’s in debt, and refuses a corporate job and runs off to Africa to save the world be a bum.

Here’s the kicker for me: his parents have a small business.  All parties involved would have been better off if he had gone to work for the business instead of running off to Boston.  He would have no debt, and his parents would still have good credit scores.

Josuweit still owes more than $100,000 on his student loans, and he pays $1,100 a month. His credit score is close to 580 (below 620 is considered bad) but improving.


His advice for students contemplating taking out student loans? Think about the kind of job you’ll get after you finish college. Consider what an entry-level position typically pays, and then look carefully at the employment rates for new grads.

I have even better advice.  Avoid the college scam altogether.  And never take out student loans.


What not to study

The Project on Student Debt has compiled a list of subjects to avoid studying if you want to avoid a life of debt servitude. has a nice summary of the study’s conclusions:

The study’s four conclusions:

  • Debt burdens vary a lot across majors. In the sixth year of repayment, typical drama, music, religion and anthropology majors are still devoting more than 10 percent of their earnings to loan repayment. Other majors with fairly high early repayment burdens include philosophy, psychology and education. By contrast, engineering, computer science, economics and nursing majors are paying 6 percent or less of earnings in their sixth year.
  • In the first five years after earning a bachelor’s degree, the typical student receives a 65 percent raise. (This rise for an individual person, as she ages and becomes more experienced, is occurring even as pay growth across the economy is weak. Today’s 30-year-old is making more than he did at 25, but not much more than a 30-year-old was five years ago.) Unfortunately in recent years, wage increases have become deminimis, suggesting that this may no longer be uniformly true.
  • Many of the majors that pay the least directly out of college also have the biggest raises in the first few years. Graduates who major in therapy professions, nutrition or fine arts, for instance, all make less than $20,000 coming out of college, but all see their pay more than double in the first five years. A typical nurse, by contrast, makes almost $45,000 in the first year but receives about a 20 percent raise over the next five years.
  • The growth of earnings for most college graduates means that some of the discussion about student debt has the wrong focus. The overall amount of debt isn’t a problem for most graduates: the typical debt, for someone who has debt, is about $26,500, a manageable sum in most college-graduate careers. The problem for many, instead, is when they must repay their loans: early in their careers, when they’re making the least. In some majors, including health education and drama, the typical graduate with debt must devote an imposing 25 percent of her earnings in the first year out of college to loan repayment. “Repayment issues for the bulk of students,” Mr. Hershbein says, “are a matter of timing, not the amount of student debt.”

The moral of the story: don’t major in the social sciences or the performing arts.  Instead, major in subjects that require hard work and quantitative (i.e., math) skills or that will lead to employment in the health care field.  Think engineering, medicine, or nursing.

At the bottom of the ZeroHedge column, there is a student loan repayment calculator that can be used to figure out exactly how much your monthly payment will be.

Below is the student loan repayment calculator that shows the share of earnings necessary to service traditional loan repayment for 80 majors. Readers can choose or search from each of these majors, as well as change the size and features of the student loan using the selection boxes above. By default, loan features reflect the experience of a typical graduate borrower, and earnings include part-time workers and those who experience unemployment throughout the year (but exclude those with graduate degrees, as these individuals often accumulate additional debt).

You’re welcome.



College is a scam

A college education used to be a pretty rare thing in the United States.  As shown below, in 1940 only about 5% of the population had been awarded a bachelor’s degree.  The number of bachelor’s degrees earned has quintupled since the 1940s:

Educational_Attainment_in_the_United_States_2009The big reason for the increase in bachelors degrees awarded in the late 1940s and the 1950s was the G.I. Bill that was passed by Congress in 1944.  This bill

provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend college, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It was available to every veteran who had been on active duty during the war years for at least ninety days and had not been dishonorably discharged; combat was not required.[1] By the end of the program in 1956, roughly 2.2 million veterans had used the G.I. Bill education benefits in order to attend colleges or universities, and an additional 6.6 million used these benefits for some kind of training program.[2]

It was during the late 1960s and early 1970s that students began enrolling in college in order to avoid going to Vietnam.  College students were exempt from the draft:

The large cohort of Baby Boomers who became eligible for military service during the Vietnam War was responsible for a steep increase in the number of exemptions and deferments, especially for college students.

And as stated by Ohio State cornerback Damon Moore in 2002, “Not everyone goes to college to be in college.”  For many modern college students, college is a place to avoid growing up, drink and do drugs, and hook up with members of the opposite sex.  Others are continuing their education by enrolling in graduate school because they can’t find a job due to the Great Recession.

But the party may be coming to an end.  Here are a few reasons why.

1.  Tuition costs have skyrocketed.


As you read this, there are over 18 million students enrolled at the nearly 5,000 colleges and universities currently in operation across the United States.  Many of these institutions of higher learning are now charging $20,000, $30,000 or even $40,000 a year for tuition and fees.  That does not even count living expenses. Today it is 400% more expensive to go to college in the United States than it was just 30 years ago.

The increase in the cost of attending college has outstripped even the housing bubble that popped in 2008:

College TuitionAnd what are the colleges and universities doing with the increase in revenue due to this tuition increase?  Raising the salaries of their best teachers professors?  Funding scholarships for future students?  Building new classrooms?

Why no, they are paying their administrators and presidents record salaries!

Penn State’s Graham Spanier was the top earner last year at the time he was fired over the Jerry Sandusky scandal, according to the study by the Chronicle of Higher Education, though his compensation was inflated by $2.4 million in severance pay and deferred compensation.

The median total compensation for the public university presidents in fiscal year 2011-2012 was $441,392, the study found. Four of the presidents earned more than $1 million, and the median base pay jumped 2 percent to $373,800.

Spanier received total compensation of $2.9 million, the same fiscal year that he was fired for his handling of the Sandusky child sex abuse scandal.

Jay Gogue of Auburn University in Alabama, E. Gordon Gee of Ohio State University, and Alan Merten of George Mason University in Ohio, who has since left his position, also received more than $1 million in the 2011-2012 fiscal year. Gee had the highest base pay, at $830,439, which accounted for 44 percent of his total compensation.

I can tell you right now, not one of these people is worth $1 million per year.  Quick, what does a college president do?  I have no idea either.  But I have heard from a very credible source that Dr. Gogue throws a heckuva party in the president’s mansion every Friday ($5,000 of university funds every week).

Schools are also ‘investing’ in palatial dorms and student recreation centers. And for any parents out there who are paying for their child’s college education, here’s a small sampling of what you may be paying for:

20 Ridiculous College Courses

Harry Potter, sex and chocolate, Lady GaGa.  Coming soon to a campus near you: the cultural impact of Justin Bieber and Miley Cyrus.  Who knew that you needed to pay $20,000 or more per year to study these things?  I guess TMZ is on too late for parents and students to stay up watching it.  And no, the link is not to the TMZ website.  As the sorority girls say, “Ewwww…”

2.  Students are taking on record levels of debt to pay for college.

Outstanding student debt topped $1 trillion in the third quarter of 2013.  And the prime pusher of this financial drug is the Department of Education:

U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan visited students at T.C. Williams High School in Alexandria, Virginia and encouraged them to load up on college loans:

“Please apply for our financial aid.  We want to give you money.  There’s lots of money out there for you.”

I wonder if Arne told them that they would be expected to pay that money back.  From

The share of 25-year-old Americans with student debt increased to 43 percent in 2012 from 25 percent in 2003, while the average loan balance rose 91 percent, to $20,326 from $10,649, New York Fed data show.

Just like an addictive drug, student loans can ruin your life because they are not dischargable in bankruptcy.  Student loan debt is the financial equivalent of herpes.

What young high school students are never told is that not even bankruptcy can get you out of student loan debt.  It will stay with you forever until you finally pay it off.

And Rolling Stone columnist and journalist Matt Taibbi exposes how student loans are ruining students’ lives:

In the early 2000s, a thirty-something scientist named Alan Collinge seemed to be going places. He had graduated from USC in 1999 with a degree in aerospace engineering and landed a research job at Cal Tech. Then he made a mistake: He asked for a raise, didn’t get it, lost his job and soon found himself underemployed and with no way to repay the roughly $38,000 in loans he’d taken out to get his degree.

Collinge’s creditor, Sallie Mae, which originally had been a quasi-public institution but, in the late Nineties, had begun transforming into a wholly private lender, didn’t answer his requests for a forbearance or a restructuring. So in 2001, he went into default. Soon enough, his original $38,000 loan had ballooned to more than $100,000 in debt, thanks to fees, penalties and accrued interest. He had a job as a military contractor, but he lost it when his employer ran a credit check on him. His whole life was now about his student debt.

You may want to read that again.  This guy is an engineer, one of the professions that are supposedly high-paying and in demand.  Too bad that Mr. Collinge was probably replaced by someone from India or China who has an H-1B visa and is willing to work for peanuts in order to avoid going back to their crappy country.

Who gains the most from the issuance of student loans?  Colleges and universities, the federal government, and Sallie Mae.  And the government and Sallie Mae aren’t playing around:

Over the years, nearly all standard consumer protections have been removed from student loans. Concurrently, draconian (as well as lucrative) collection powers were given to the lending side of the system. Today, we are faced with a structurally predatory lending system where most of the players- including the federal government- have been making more money from defaults than loans which remain in good stead. Any western economist will agree that this is a defining characteristic of a predatory lending system. This has caused numerous related problems to cascade throughout the system. First, it has led to an environment where the Department of Education, institutionally, has lost the will to provide meaningful oversight of the lenders or the schools, and has also, clearly, abandoned its reporting duties to the public, and also to Congress.

In this environment, the schools have been given the green light by Congress, which sets the federal loan limits, to raise their prices at double, or even triple the rate of inflation year after year. The schools and lenders both have grossly misled the students about the value of the institutions, and also the real risk that the loans posed. Clearly, this would never have happened had the government, at least, had significant “skin in the game” on the side of the borrowers, rather than against them. This is what happens when bankruptcy and other protections are removed, and defaults become a preferred outcome for a lending system. And in the case of federal student loans (since the federal government guarantees (and now makes the loans), it is the worst sort of “big-government” one might imagine.

Plus, Sallie Mae gets to double-dip when a former student defaults on a loan.  The image below illustrates what happens after a default.


Schools are double-dipping as well, because their endowment funds are investing in Sallie Mae stock.  The only ones involved in the student loan/education scam system who aren’t benefiting financially are the students.  These very same students who are supposed to reap a huge benefit from going to college.

3. The degrees most students are ‘earning’ are completely worthless.

Not only are students taking worthless courses on Harry Potter and Lady Gaga, many of them are graduating with degrees in fields in the Liberal Arts and/or (insert your favorite minority group here) Studies.  These degrees are pretty much worthless as there are very few jobs in those fields.  And the jobs that do exist in these fields don’t pay very much.  In fact, half of all college graduates are working in jobs that don’t require a college degree:

Nearly half of employed college graduates currently work in jobs that don’t require a college degree, reports The Wall Street Journal, and the problem doesn’t seem to be temporary, according to a paper released by the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Add to that the fact that more than half of recent college graduates are either unemployed or underemployed:

About 1.5 million, or 53.6 percent, of bachelor’s degree-holders under the age of 25 last year were jobless or underemployed, the highest share in at least 11 years. In 2000, the share was at a low of 41 percent, before the dot-com bust erased job gains for college graduates in the telecommunications and IT fields.

Out of the 1.5 million who languished in the job market, about half were underemployed, an increase from the previous year.

Even the highly-regarded STEM fields are not immune from this problem.  Perhaps this is why recent college graduates regret going to college.

A new study by Wells Fargo found that one in three Millennials regret attending college and would have instead preferred to work instead of rack up debt they will be paying off for decades to come.

The Millennials have a point.  But all is not lost.  We just need to get young people to stop believing the following lies that they are being told about college:

  • You need to go to college to get a good job.  The jobs aren’t there anymore.
  • You will make more money if you go to college.  Hard to do if you can’t get a job or have to pay off student loans in perpetuity.  In fact, once the repayment costs are factored in, you may be making yourself worse off if you take out loans to go to college instead of getting a job instead.
  • College is the best time of your life.  Ok, I can’t say that it won’t be (if you consider drinking until you black out, having sex with people you barely know, and catching herpegonosyphillaids the ‘best time of your life’).  But the whole point of going to college is to earn a degree that will allow you to improve your economic prospects for the future.  A college degree is no longer providing that benefit.

So what should young people do to improve their future economic prospects?  Working may be an option, if they are able to find a job.  The type of job doesn’t really matter as long as they are earning money and gaining skills instead of going into debt.  Here is a short list of jobs with the highest demand.  The jobs aren’t very glamorous, but many of them don’t require much education, if any.  And the degrees that are required for those jobs can be earned in 2 years or less from a community college, which is a less expensive option than spending 4 years at a college or university.

College isn’t for everybody.  And you don’t have to attend college to get an education or a job.

But don’t just take my word for it.  Listen to Mike Rowe before you sign up for that worthless, expensive 4-year degree program.